A deep learning framework for the detection and quantification of drusen and reticular pseudodrusen on optical coherence tomography

by   Roy Schwartz, et al.

Purpose - To develop and validate a deep learning (DL) framework for the detection and quantification of drusen and reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) on optical coherence tomography scans. Design - Development and validation of deep learning models for classification and feature segmentation. Methods - A DL framework was developed consisting of a classification model and an out-of-distribution (OOD) detection model for the identification of ungradable scans; a classification model to identify scans with drusen or RPD; and an image segmentation model to independently segment lesions as RPD or drusen. Data were obtained from 1284 participants in the UK Biobank (UKBB) with a self-reported diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and 250 UKBB controls. Drusen and RPD were manually delineated by five retina specialists. The main outcome measures were sensitivity, specificity, area under the ROC curve (AUC), kappa, accuracy and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results - The classification models performed strongly at their respective tasks (0.95, 0.93, and 0.99 AUC, respectively, for the ungradable scans classifier, the OOD model, and the drusen and RPD classification model). The mean ICC for drusen and RPD area vs. graders was 0.74 and 0.61, respectively, compared with 0.69 and 0.68 for intergrader agreement. FROC curves showed that the model's sensitivity was close to human performance. Conclusions - The models achieved high classification and segmentation performance, similar to human performance. Application of this robust framework will further our understanding of RPD as a separate entity from drusen in both research and clinical settings.


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