A lightweight deep learning based cloud detection method for Sentinel-2A imagery fusing multi-scale spectral and spatial features

by   Jun Li, et al.

Clouds are a very important factor in the availability of optical remote sensing images. Recently, deep learning-based cloud detection methods have surpassed classical methods based on rules and physical models of clouds. However, most of these deep models are very large which limits their applicability and explainability, while other models do not make use of the full spectral information in multi-spectral images such as Sentinel-2. In this paper, we propose a lightweight network for cloud detection, fusing multi-scale spectral and spatial features (CDFM3SF) and tailored for processing all spectral bands in Sentinel- 2A images. The proposed method consists of an encoder and a decoder. In the encoder, three input branches are designed to handle spectral bands at their native resolution and extract multiscale spectral features. Three novel components are designed: a mixed depth-wise separable convolution (MDSC) and a shared and dilated residual block (SDRB) to extract multi-scale spatial features, and a concatenation and sum (CS) operation to fuse multi-scale spectral and spatial features with little calculation and no additional parameters. The decoder of CD-FM3SF outputs three cloud masks at the same resolution as input bands to enhance the supervision information of small, middle and large clouds. To validate the performance of the proposed method, we manually labeled 36 Sentinel-2A scenes evenly distributed over mainland China. The experiment results demonstrate that CD-FM3SF outperforms traditional cloud detection methods and state-of-theart deep learning-based methods in both accuracy and speed.


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