A Radiomics-Incorporated Deep Ensemble Learning Model for Multi-Parametric MRI-based Glioma Segmentation

by   Yang Chen, et al.

We developed a deep ensemble learning model with a radiomics spatial encoding execution for improved glioma segmentation accuracy using multi-parametric MRI (mp-MRI). This model was developed using 369 glioma patients with a 4-modality mp-MRI protocol: T1, contrast-enhanced T1 (T1-Ce), T2, and FLAIR. In each modality volume, a 3D sliding kernel was implemented across the brain to capture image heterogeneity: fifty-six radiomic features were extracted within the kernel, resulting in a 4th order tensor. Each radiomic feature can then be encoded as a 3D image volume, namely a radiomic feature map (RFM). PCA was employed for data dimension reduction and the first 4 PCs were selected. Four deep neural networks as sub-models following the U-Net architecture were trained for the segmenting of a region-of-interest (ROI): each sub-model utilizes the mp-MRI and 1 of the 4 PCs as a 5-channel input for a 2D execution. The 4 softmax probability results given by the U-net ensemble were superimposed and binarized by Otsu method as the segmentation result. Three ensemble models were trained to segment enhancing tumor (ET), tumor core (TC), and whole tumor (WT). The adopted radiomics spatial encoding execution enriches the image heterogeneity information that leads to the successful demonstration of the proposed deep ensemble model, which offers a new tool for mp-MRI based medical image segmentation.


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