Deep Learning for RF Signal Classification in Unknown and Dynamic Spectrum Environments

by   Yi Shi, et al.

Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) benefits from detection and classification of interference sources including in-network users, out-network users, and jammers that may all coexist in a wireless network. We present a deep learning based signal (modulation) classification solution in a realistic wireless network setting, where 1) signal types may change over time; 2) some signal types may be unknown for which there is no training data; 3) signals may be spoofed such as the smart jammers replaying other signal types; and 4) different signal types may be superimposed due to the interference from concurrent transmissions. For case 1, we apply continual learning and train a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) using an Elastic Weight Consolidation (EWC) based loss. For case 2, we detect unknown signals via outlier detection applied to the outputs of convolutional layers using Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) and k-means clustering methods. For case 3, we extend the CNN structure to capture phase shifts due to radio hardware effects to identify the spoofing signal sources. For case 4, we apply blind source separation using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to separate interfering signals. We utilize the signal classification results in a distributed scheduling protocol, where in-network (secondary) users employ signal classification scores to make channel access decisions and share the spectrum with each other while avoiding interference with out-network (primary) users and jammers. Compared with benchmark TDMA-based schemes, we show that distributed scheduling constructed upon signal classification results provides major improvements to in-network user throughput and out-network user success ratio.


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