Differential Recurrent Neural Network and its Application for Human Activity Recognition

by   Naifan Zhuang, et al.

The Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network is capable of processing complex sequential information since it utilizes special gating schemes for learning representations from long input sequences. It has the potential to model any sequential time-series data, where the current hidden state has to be considered in the context of the past hidden states. This property makes LSTM an ideal choice to learn the complex dynamics present in long sequences. Unfortunately, the conventional LSTMs do not consider the impact of spatio-temporal dynamics corresponding to the given salient motion patterns, when they gate the information that ought to be memorized through time. To address this problem, we propose a differential gating scheme for the LSTM neural network, which emphasizes on the change in information gain caused by the salient motions between the successive video frames. This change in information gain is quantified by Derivative of States (DoS), and thus the proposed LSTM model is termed as differential Recurrent Neural Network (dRNN). In addition, the original work used the hidden state at the last time-step to model the entire video sequence. Based on the energy profiling of DoS, we further propose to employ the State Energy Profile (SEP) to search for salient dRNN states and construct more informative representations. The effectiveness of the proposed model was demonstrated by automatically recognizing human actions from the real-world 2D and 3D single-person action datasets. We point out that LSTM is a special form of dRNN. As a result, we have introduced a new family of LSTMs. Our study is one of the first works towards demonstrating the potential of learning complex time-series representations via high-order derivatives of states.


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