Four-valued monitorability of ω-regular languages

by   Zhe Chen, et al.

Runtime Verification (RV) is a lightweight formal technique in which program or system execution is monitored and analyzed, to check whether certain properties are satisfied or violated after a finite number of steps. The use of RV has led to interest in deciding whether a property is monitorable: whether it is always possible for the satisfaction or violation of the property to be determined after a finite future continuation. However, classical two-valued monitorability suffers from two inherent limitations. First, a property can only be evaluated as monitorable or non-monitorable; no information is available regarding whether only one verdict (satisfaction or violation) can be detected. Second, monitorability is defined at the language-level and does not tell us whether satisfaction or violation can be detected starting from the current monitor state during system execution. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a new notion of four-valued monitorability for ω-languages and applies it at the state-level. Four-valued monitorability is more informative than two-valued monitorability as a property can be evaluated as a four-valued result, denoting that only satisfaction, only violation, or both are active for a monitorable property. We can also compute state-level weak monitorability, i.e., whether satisfaction or violation can be detected starting from a given state in a monitor, which enables state-level optimizations of monitoring algorithms. Based on a new six-valued semantics, we propose procedures for computing four-valued monitorability of ω-regular languages, both at the language-level and at the state-level. We have developed a new tool that implements the proposed procedure for computing monitorability of LTL formulas.


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