Game of Learning Bloch Equation Simulations for MR Fingerprinting

by   Mingrui Yang, et al.

Purpose: This work proposes a novel approach to efficiently generate MR fingerprints for MR fingerprinting (MRF) problems based on the unsupervised deep learning model generative adversarial networks (GAN). Methods: The GAN model is adopted and modified for better convergence and performance, resulting in an MRF specific model named GAN-MRF. The GAN-MRF model is trained, validated, and tested using different MRF fingerprints simulated from the Bloch equations with certain MRF sequence. The performance and robustness of the model are further tested by using in vivo data collected on a 3 Tesla scanner from a healthy volunteer together with MRF dictionaries with different sizes. T1, T2 maps are generated and compared quantitatively. Results: The validation and testing curves for the GAN-MRF model show no evidence of high bias or high variance problems. The sample MRF fingerprints generated from the trained GAN-MRF model agree well with the benchmark fingerprints simulated from the Bloch equations. The in vivo T1, T2 maps generated from the GAN-MRF fingerprints are in good agreement with those generated from the Bloch simulated fingerprints, showing good performance and robustness of the proposed GAN-MRF model. Moreover, the MRF dictionary generation time is reduced from hours to sub-second for the testing dictionary. Conclusion: The GAN-MRF model enables a fast and accurate generation of the MRF fingerprints. It significantly reduces the MRF dictionary generation process and opens the door for real-time applications and sequence optimization problems.


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