Hardware Efficient Neural Network Assisted Qubit Readout

by   Satvik Maurya, et al.

Reading a qubit is a fundamental operation in quantum computing. It translates quantum information into classical information enabling subsequent classification to assign the qubit states `0' or `1'. Unfortunately, qubit readout is one of the most error-prone and slowest operations on a superconducting quantum processor. On state-of-the-art superconducting quantum processors, readout errors can range from 1-10 readout has resulted in significant research to design better discriminators to achieve higher qubit-readout accuracies. The readout accuracy impacts the benchmark fidelity for Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum (NISQ) applications or the logical error rate in error-correcting codes such as the surface code. Prior works have used machine-learning-assisted single-shot qubit-state classification, where a deep neural network was used for more robust discrimination by compensating for crosstalk errors. However, the neural network size can limit the scalability of systems, especially if fast hardware discrimination is required. This state-of-the-art baseline design cannot be implemented on off-the-shelf FPGAs used for the control and readout of superconducting qubits in most systems, which increases the overall readout latency, since discrimination has to be performed in software. In this work, we propose HERQULES, a scalable approach to improve qubit-state inference by using matched filters in conjunction with a significantly smaller and scalable neural network for qubit-state discrimination. We achieve substantially higher readout accuracies (16.4 baseline with a scalable design that can be readily implemented on off-the-shelf FPGAs. We also show that HERQULES is more versatile and can support shorter readout durations than the baseline design without additional training overheads.


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