Machine Learning for Wireless Communications in the Internet of Things: A Comprehensive Survey

by   Jithin Jagannath, et al.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to require more effective and efficient wireless communications than ever before. For this reason, techniques such as spectrum sharing and dynamic spectrum access will soon become essential components of the IoT wireless communication process. In this vision, IoT devices must be able to not only learn to autonomously extract spectrum knowledge on-the-fly from the network but also leverage such knowledge to dynamically change appropriate wireless parameters (e.g., frequency band, symbol modulation, coding rate, route selection etc) to reach the network's optimal operating point. To address the above challenges, much research has been devoted to exploring the use of machine learning to address problems in the IoT wireless communications domain. The reason behind machine learning's popularity is that it provides a general framework to solve very complex problems where a model of the phenomenon being learned is too complex to derive or too dynamic to be summarized in mathematical terms. This work provides a comprehensive survey of the state of the art in the application of machine learning techniques to address key problems in IoT wireless communications with an emphasis on its ad hoc networking aspect. First, we present extensive background notions on machine learning techniques. Then, by adopting a bottom-up approach, we examine existing work on machine learning for the IoT at the physical, data-link and network layer of the protocol stack. Thereafter, we discuss directions taken by the community towards hardware implementation to ensure the feasibility of these techniques. Finally, we provide a series of research challenges associated with the applications of machine learning techniques for IoT wireless communications.


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