Medical Image Segmentation on MRI Images with Missing Modalities: A Review

by   Reza Azad, et al.

Dealing with missing modalities in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and overcoming their negative repercussions is considered a hurdle in biomedical imaging. The combination of a specified set of modalities, which is selected depending on the scenario and anatomical part being scanned, will provide medical practitioners with full information about the region of interest in the human body, hence the missing MRI sequences should be reimbursed. The compensation of the adverse impact of losing useful information owing to the lack of one or more modalities is a well-known challenge in the field of computer vision, particularly for medical image processing tasks including tumour segmentation, tissue classification, and image generation. Various approaches have been developed over time to mitigate this problem's negative implications and this literature review goes through a significant number of the networks that seek to do so. The approaches reviewed in this work are reviewed in detail, including earlier techniques such as synthesis methods as well as later approaches that deploy deep learning, such as common latent space models, knowledge distillation networks, mutual information maximization, and generative adversarial networks (GANs). This work discusses the most important approaches that have been offered at the time of this writing, examining the novelty, strength, and weakness of each one. Furthermore, the most commonly used MRI datasets are highlighted and described. The main goal of this research is to offer a performance evaluation of missing modality compensating networks, as well as to outline future strategies for dealing with this issue.


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