On the Impact of the Hardware Warm-Up Time on Deep Learning-Based RF Fingerprinting

by   Abdurrahman Elmaghbub, et al.

Deep learning-based RF fingerprinting offers great potential for improving the security robustness of various emerging wireless networks. Although much progress has been done in enhancing fingerprinting methods, the impact of device hardware stabilization and warm-up time on the achievable fingerprinting performances has not received adequate attention. As such, this paper focuses on addressing this gap by investigating and shedding light on what could go wrong if the hardware stabilization aspects are overlooked. Specifically, our experimental results show that when the deep learning models are trained with data samples captured after the hardware stabilizes but tested with data captured right after powering on the devices, the device classification accuracy drops below 37 captured after the stabilization period, the achievable average accuracy exceeds 99 88 the wireless and wired scenarios, respectively. Additionally, in this work, we leverage simulation and testbed experimentation to explain the cause behind the I/Q signal behavior observed during the device hardware warm-up time that led to the RF fingerprinting performance degradation. Furthermore, we release a large WiFi dataset, containing both unstable (collected during the warm-up period) and stable (collected after the warm-up period) captures across multiple days. Our work contributes datasets, explanations, and guidelines to enhance the robustness of RF fingerprinting in securing emerging wireless networks.


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