One-Time Universal Hashing Quantum Digital Signatures without Perfect Keys

by   Bing-Hong Li, et al.

Quantum digital signatures (QDS), generating correlated bit strings among three remote parties for signatures through quantum law, can guarantee non-repudiation, authenticity, and integrity of messages. Recently, one-time universal hashing QDS framework, exploiting the quantum asymmetric encryption and universal hash functions, has been proposed to significantly improve the signature rate and ensure unconditional security by directly signing the hash value of long messages. However, similar to quantum key distribution, this framework utilizes keys with perfect secrecy by performing privacy amplification that introduces cumbersome matrix operations, thereby consuming large computational resources, causing delays and increasing failure probability. Here, we prove that, different from private communication, imperfect quantum keys with limited information leakage can be used for digital signatures and authentication without compromising the security while having eight orders of magnitude improvement on signature rate for signing a megabit message compared with conventional single-bit schemes. This study significantly reduces the delay for data postprocessing and is compatible with any quantum key generation protocols. In our simulation, taking two-photon twin-field key generation protocol as an example, QDS can be practically implemented over a fiber distance of 650 km between the signer and receiver. For the first time, this study offers a cryptographic application of quantum keys with imperfect secrecy and paves a way for the practical and agile implementation of digital signatures in a future quantum network.


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