Semi-supervised Semantic Segmentation of Organs at Risk on 3D Pelvic CT Images

by   Zhuangzhuang Zhang, et al.

Automated segmentation of organs-at-risk in pelvic computed tomography (CT) images can assist the radiotherapy treatment planning by saving time and effort of manual contouring and reducing intra-observer and inter-observer variation. However, training high-performance deep-learning segmentation models usually requires broad labeled data, which are labor-intensive to collect. Lack of annotated data presents a significant challenge for many medical imaging-related deep learning solutions. This paper proposes a novel end-to-end convolutional neural network-based semi-supervised adversarial method that can segment multiple organs-at-risk, including prostate, bladder, rectum, left femur, and right femur. New design schemes are introduced to enhance the baseline residual U-net architecture to improve performance. Importantly, new unlabeled CT images are synthesized by a generative adversarial network (GAN) that is trained on given images to overcome the inherent problem of insufficient annotated data in practice. A semi-supervised adversarial strategy is then introduced to utilize labeled and unlabeled 3D CT images. The new method is evaluated on a dataset of 100 training cases and 20 testing cases. Experimental results, including four metrics (dice similarity coefficient, average Hausdorff distance, average surface Hausdorff distance, and relative volume difference), show that the new method outperforms several state-of-the-art segmentation approaches.


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