A Low Rank Gaussian Process Prediction Model for Very Large Datasets

by   Roberto Rivera, et al.

Spatial prediction requires expensive computation to invert the spatial covariance matrix it depends on and also has considerable storage needs. This work concentrates on computationally efficient algorithms for prediction using very large datasets. A recent prediction model for spatial data known as Fixed Rank Kriging is much faster than the kriging and can be easily implemented with less assumptions about the process. However, Fixed Rank Kriging requires the estimation of a matrix which must be positive definite and the original estimation procedure cannot guarantee this property. We present a result that shows when a matrix subtraction of a given form will give a positive definite matrix. Motivated by this result, we present an iterative Fixed Rank Kriging algorithm that ensures positive definiteness of the matrix required for prediction and show that under mild conditions the algorithm numerically converges. The modified Fixed Rank Kriging procedure is implemented to predict missing chlorophyll observations for very large regions of ocean color. Predictions are compared to those made by other well known methods of spatial prediction.


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