A Novel Epidemiological Approach to Geographically Mapping Population Dry Eye Disease in the United States through Google Trends

by   Daniel B. Azzam, et al.

Dry eye disease (DED) affects approximately half of the United States population. DED is characterized by dryness on the corena surface due to a variety of causes. This study fills the spatiotemporal gaps in DED epidemiology by using Google Trends as a novel epidemiological tool for geographically mapping DED in relation to environmental risk factors. We utilized Google Trends to extract DED-related queries estimating user intent from 2004-2019 in the United States. We incorporated national climate data to generate heat maps comparing geographic, temporal, and environmental relationships of DED. Multi-variable regression models were constructed to generate quadratic forecasts predicting DED and control searches. Our results illustrated the upward trend, seasonal pattern, environmental influence, and spatial relationship of DED search volume across US geography. Localized patches of DED interest were visualized along the coastline. There was no significant difference in DED queries across US census regions. Regression model 1 predicted DED searches over time (R^2=0.97) with significant predictors being control queries (p=0.0024), time (p=0.001), and seasonality (Winter p=0.0028; Spring p<0.001; Summer p=0.018). Regression model 2 predicted DED queries per state (R^2=0.49) with significant predictors being temperature (p=0.0003) and coastal zone (p=0.025). Importantly, temperature, coastal status, and seasonality were stronger risk factors of DED searches than humidity, sunshine, pollution, or region as clinical literature may suggest. Our work paves the way for future exploration of geographic information systems for locating DED and other diseases via online search query metrics.


page 1

page 4

page 5

page 6


The Causality Inference of Public Interest in Restaurants and Bars on COVID-19 Daily Cases in the US: A Google Trends Analysis

The COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic has affected virtually every region of...

Forecasting mortality using Google trend

United State possesses the largest economy in the world, and thus serves...

Estimating the Total Volume of Queries to a Search Engine

We study the problem of estimating the total number of searches (volume)...

Predicting Tourism Demand in Indonesia Using Google Trends Data

Tourism data is one of the strategic data in Indonesia. In addition, tou...

Trends in Remote Learning-based Google Shopping in the United States due to COVID-19

The United States of America has been the worst affected country in term...

The Importance of Environmental Factors in Forecasting Australian Power Demand

In this paper, a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARI...

Multi-Interactive-Modality based Modeling for Myopia Pro-Gression of Adolescent Student

Myopia is a common visual disorder that affects millions of people world...

Please sign up or login with your details

Forgot password? Click here to reset