A Scalable Decoder Micro-architecture for Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computing

by   Poulami Das, et al.

Quantum computation promises significant computational advantages over classical computation for some problems. However, quantum hardware suffers from much higher error rates than in classical hardware. As a result, extensive quantum error correction is required to execute a useful quantum algorithm. The decoder is a key component of the error correction scheme whose role is to identify errors faster than they accumulate in the quantum computer and that must be implemented with minimum hardware resources in order to scale to the regime of practical applications. In this work, we consider surface code error correction, which is the most popular family of error correcting codes for quantum computing, and we design a decoder micro-architecture for the Union-Find decoding algorithm. We propose a three-stage fully pipelined hardware implementation of the decoder that significantly speeds up the decoder. Then, we optimize the amount of decoding hardware required to perform error correction simultaneously over all the logical qubits of the quantum computer. By sharing resources between logical qubits, we obtain a 67 reduction of the number of hardware units and the memory capacity is reduced by 70 factor at least 30x using low-overhead compression algorithms. Finally, we provide numerical evidence that our optimized micro-architecture can be executed fast enough to correct errors in a quantum computer.


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