Adaptive neighborhood Metric learning

by   Kun Song, et al.

In this paper, we reveal that metric learning would suffer from serious inseparable problem if without informative sample mining. Since the inseparable samples are often mixed with hard samples, current informative sample mining strategies used to deal with inseparable problem may bring up some side-effects, such as instability of objective function, etc. To alleviate this problem, we propose a novel distance metric learning algorithm, named adaptive neighborhood metric learning (ANML). In ANML, we design two thresholds to adaptively identify the inseparable similar and dissimilar samples in the training procedure, thus inseparable sample removing and metric parameter learning are implemented in the same procedure. Due to the non-continuity of the proposed ANML, we develop an ingenious function, named log-exp mean function to construct a continuous formulation to surrogate it, which can be efficiently solved by the gradient descent method. Similar to Triplet loss, ANML can be used to learn both the linear and deep embeddings. By analyzing the proposed method, we find it has some interesting properties. For example, when ANML is used to learn the linear embedding, current famous metric learning algorithms such as the large margin nearest neighbor (LMNN) and neighbourhood components analysis (NCA) are the special cases of the proposed ANML by setting the parameters different values. When it is used to learn deep features, the state-of-the-art deep metric learning algorithms such as Triplet loss, Lifted structure loss, and Multi-similarity loss become the special cases of ANML. Furthermore, the log-exp mean function proposed in our method gives a new perspective to review the deep metric learning methods such as Prox-NCA and N-pairs loss. At last, promising experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.


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