AdaptiveSAM: Towards Efficient Tuning of SAM for Surgical Scene Segmentation

by   Jay N. Paranjape, et al.

Segmentation is a fundamental problem in surgical scene analysis using artificial intelligence. However, the inherent data scarcity in this domain makes it challenging to adapt traditional segmentation techniques for this task. To tackle this issue, current research employs pretrained models and finetunes them on the given data. Even so, these require training deep networks with millions of parameters every time new data becomes available. A recently published foundation model, Segment-Anything (SAM), generalizes well to a large variety of natural images, hence tackling this challenge to a reasonable extent. However, SAM does not generalize well to the medical domain as is without utilizing a large amount of compute resources for fine-tuning and using task-specific prompts. Moreover, these prompts are in the form of bounding-boxes or foreground/background points that need to be annotated explicitly for every image, making this solution increasingly tedious with higher data size. In this work, we propose AdaptiveSAM - an adaptive modification of SAM that can adjust to new datasets quickly and efficiently, while enabling text-prompted segmentation. For finetuning AdaptiveSAM, we propose an approach called bias-tuning that requires a significantly smaller number of trainable parameters than SAM (less than 2%). At the same time, AdaptiveSAM requires negligible expert intervention since it uses free-form text as prompt and can segment the object of interest with just the label name as prompt. Our experiments show that AdaptiveSAM outperforms current state-of-the-art methods on various medical imaging datasets including surgery, ultrasound and X-ray. Code is available at


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