An Anonymous yet Accountable Contract Wallet System using Account Abstraction

by   Kota Chin, et al.

Account abstraction allows a contract wallet to initiate transaction execution. Thus, account abstraction is useful for preserving the privacy of externally owned accounts (EOAs) because it can remove a transaction issued from an EOA to the contract wallet and hides who issued the transaction by additionally employing anonymous authentication procedures such as ring signatures. However, unconditional anonymity is undesirable in practice because it prevents to reveal who is accountable for a problem when it arises. Thus, maintaining a balancing between anonymity and accountability is important. In this paper, we propose an anonymous yet accountable contract wallet system. In addition to account abstraction, the proposed system also utilizes accountable ring signatures (Bootle et al., ESORICS 2015). The proposed system provides (1) anonymity of a transaction issuer that hides who agreed with running the contract wallet, and (2) accountability of the issuer, which allows the issuer to prove they agreed with running the contract wallet. Moreover, due to a security requirement of accountable ring signatures, the transaction issuer cannot claim that someone else issued the transaction. This functionality allows us to clarify the accountability involved in issuing a transaction. In addition, the proposed system allows an issuer to employ a typical signature scheme, e.g., ECDSA, together with the ring signature scheme. This functionality can be considered an extension of the common multi-signatures that require a certain number of ECDSA signatures to run a contract wallet. The proposed system was implemented using zkSync (Solidity). We discuss several potential applications of the proposed system, i.e., medical information sharing and asset management.


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