Automatic cephalometric landmarks detection on frontal faces: an approach based on supervised learning techniques

by   Lucas Faria Porto, et al.

Facial landmarks are employed in many research areas such as facial recognition, craniofacial identification, age and sex estimation among the most important. In the forensic field, the focus is on the analysis of a particular set of facial landmarks, defined as cephalometric landmarks. Previous works demonstrated that the descriptive adequacy of these anatomical references for an indirect application (photo-anthropometric description) increased the marking precision of these points, contributing to a greater reliability of these analyzes. However, most of them are performed manually and all of them are subjectivity inherent to the expert examiners. In this sense, the purpose of this work is the development and validation of automatic techniques to detect cephalometric landmarks from digital images of frontal faces in forensic field. The presented approach uses a combination of computer vision and image processing techniques within a supervised learning procedures. The proposed methodology obtains similar precision to a group of human manual cephalometric reference markers and result to be more accurate against others state-of-the-art facial landmark detection frameworks. It achieves a normalized mean distance (in pixel) error of 0.014, similar to the mean inter-expert dispersion (0.009) and clearly better than other automatic approaches also analyzed along of this work (0.026 and 0.101).


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