Collaborative Intelligence Orchestration: Inconsistency-Based Fusion of Semi-Supervised Learning and Active Learning

by   Jiannan Guo, et al.

While annotating decent amounts of data to satisfy sophisticated learning models can be cost-prohibitive for many real-world applications. Active learning (AL) and semi-supervised learning (SSL) are two effective, but often isolated, means to alleviate the data-hungry problem. Some recent studies explored the potential of combining AL and SSL to better probe the unlabeled data. However, almost all these contemporary SSL-AL works use a simple combination strategy, ignoring SSL and AL's inherent relation. Further, other methods suffer from high computational costs when dealing with large-scale, high-dimensional datasets. Motivated by the industry practice of labeling data, we propose an innovative Inconsistency-based virtual aDvErsarial Active Learning (IDEAL) algorithm to further investigate SSL-AL's potential superiority and achieve mutual enhancement of AL and SSL, i.e., SSL propagates label information to unlabeled samples and provides smoothed embeddings for AL, while AL excludes samples with inconsistent predictions and considerable uncertainty for SSL. We estimate unlabeled samples' inconsistency by augmentation strategies of different granularities, including fine-grained continuous perturbation exploration and coarse-grained data transformations. Extensive experiments, in both text and image domains, validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, comparing it against state-of-the-art baselines. Two real-world case studies visualize the practical industrial value of applying and deploying the proposed data sampling algorithm.


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