Deep denoising autoencoder-based non-invasive blood flow detection for arteriovenous fistula

by   Li-Chin Chen, et al.

Clinical guidelines underscore the importance of regularly monitoring and surveilling arteriovenous fistula (AVF) access in hemodialysis patients to promptly detect any dysfunction. Although phono-angiography/sound analysis overcomes the limitations of standardized AVF stenosis diagnosis tool, prior studies have depended on conventional feature extraction methods, restricting their applicability in diverse contexts. In contrast, representation learning captures fundamental underlying factors that can be readily transferred across different contexts. We propose an approach based on deep denoising autoencoders (DAEs) that perform dimensionality reduction and reconstruction tasks using the waveform obtained through one-level discrete wavelet transform, utilizing representation learning. Our results demonstrate that the latent representation generated by the DAE surpasses expectations with an accuracy of 0.93. The incorporation of noise-mixing and the utilization of a noise-to-clean scheme effectively enhance the discriminative capabilities of the latent representation. Moreover, when employed to identify patient-specific characteristics, the latent representation exhibited performance by surpassing an accuracy of 0.92. Appropriate light-weighted methods can restore the detection performance of the excessively reduced dimensionality version and enable operation on less computational devices. Our findings suggest that representation learning is a more feasible approach for extracting auscultation features in AVF, leading to improved generalization and applicability across multiple tasks. The manipulation of latent representations holds immense potential for future advancements. Further investigations in this area are promising and warrant continued exploration.


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