DOA Estimation Using Massive Receive MIMO: Basic Principles, Key Techniques, Performance Analysis, and Applications

by   Baihua Shi, et al.

As massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) becomes popular, direction of arrival (DOA) measurement has been made a real renaissance due to the high-resolution achieved. Thus, there is no doubt about DOA estimation using massive MIMO. The purpose of this paper is to describe its basic principles and key techniques, to present the performance analysis, and to appreciate its engineering applications. It is anticipated that there are still many challenges in DOA estimation using massive receive MIMO, such as high circuit cost, high energy consumption and high complexity of the algorithm implementation. New researches and breakthroughs are illustrated to deal with those problems. Then, a new architecture, hybrid analog and digital (HAD) massive receive MIMO with low-resolution ADCs, is presented to strike a good balance among circuit cost, complexity and performance. Then, a novel three-dimensional (3D) angle of arrival (AOA) localization method based on geometrical center is proposed to compute the position of a passive emitter using single base station equipped with an ultra-massive MIMO system. And, it can achieve the Cramer-Rao low bound (CRLB). Here, the performance loss is also analyzed to quantify the minimum number of bits. DOA estimation will play a key role in lots of applications, such as directional modulation, beamforming tracking and alignment for 5G/6G.


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