Effective Multi-Graph Neural Networks for Illicit Account Detection on Cryptocurrency Transaction Networks

by   Zhihao Ding, et al.

We study illicit account detection on transaction networks of cryptocurrencies that are increasi_testngly important in online financial markets. The surge of illicit activities on cryptocurrencies has resulted in billions of losses from normal users. Existing solutions either rely on tedious feature engineering to get handcrafted features, or are inadequate to fully utilize the rich semantics of cryptocurrency transaction data, and consequently, yield sub-optimal performance. In this paper, we formulate the illicit account detection problem as a classification task over directed multigraphs with edge attributes, and present DIAM, a novel multi-graph neural network model to effectively detect illicit accounts on large transaction networks. First, DIAM includes an Edge2Seq module that automatically learns effective node representations preserving intrinsic transaction patterns of parallel edges, by considering both edge attributes and directed edge sequence dependencies. Then utilizing the multigraph topology, DIAM employs a new Multigraph Discrepancy (MGD) module with a well-designed message passing mechanism to capture the discrepant features between normal and illicit nodes, supported by an attention mechanism. Assembling all techniques, DIAM is trained in an end-to-end manner. Extensive experiments, comparing against 14 existing solutions on 4 large cryptocurrency datasets of Bitcoin and Ethereum, demonstrate that DIAM consistently achieves the best performance to accurately detect illicit accounts, while being efficient. For instance, on a Bitcoin dataset with 20 million nodes and 203 million edges, DIAM achieves F1 score 96.55


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