Estimating and Improving Fairness with Adversarial Learning

by   Xiaoxiao Li, et al.

Fairness and accountability are two essential pillars for trustworthy Artificial Intelligence (AI) in healthcare. However, the existing AI model may be biased in its decision marking. To tackle this issue, we propose an adversarial multi-task training strategy to simultaneously mitigate and detect bias in the deep learning-based medical image analysis system. Specifically, we propose to add a discrimination module against bias and a critical module that predicts unfairness within the base classification model. We further impose an orthogonality regularization to force the two modules to be independent during training. Hence, we can keep these deep learning tasks distinct from one another, and avoid collapsing them into a singular point on the manifold. Through this adversarial training method, the data from the underprivileged group, which is vulnerable to bias because of attributes such as sex and skin tone, are transferred into a domain that is neutral relative to these attributes. Furthermore, the critical module can predict fairness scores for the data with unknown sensitive attributes. We evaluate our framework on a large-scale public-available skin lesion dataset under various fairness evaluation metrics. The experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method for estimating and improving fairness in the deep learning-based medical image analysis system.


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