Experimental Security Analysis of DNN-based Adaptive Cruise Control under Context-Aware Perception Attacks

by   Xugui Zhou, et al.

Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is a widely used driver assistance feature for maintaining desired speed and safe distance to the leading vehicles. This paper evaluates the security of the deep neural network (DNN) based ACC systems under stealthy perception attacks that strategically inject perturbations into camera data to cause forward collisions. We present a combined knowledge-and-data-driven approach to design a context-aware strategy for the selection of the most critical times for triggering the attacks and a novel optimization-based method for the adaptive generation of image perturbations at run-time. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed attack using an actual driving dataset and a realistic simulation platform with the control software from a production ACC system and a physical-world driving simulator while considering interventions by the driver and safety features such as Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) and Forward Collision Warning (FCW). Experimental results show that the proposed attack achieves 142.9x higher success rate in causing accidents than random attacks and is mitigated 89.6 features while being stealthy and robust to real-world factors and dynamic changes in the environment. This study provides insights into the role of human operators and basic safety interventions in preventing attacks.


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