FastPET: Near Real-Time PET Reconstruction from Histo-Images Using a Neural Network

by   William Whiteley, et al.

Direct reconstruction of positron emission tomography (PET) data using deep neural networks is a growing field of research. Initial results are promising, but often the networks are complex, memory utilization inefficient, produce relatively small image sizes (e.g. 128x128), and low count rate reconstructions are of varying quality. This paper proposes FastPET, a novel direct reconstruction convolutional neural network that is architecturally simple, memory space efficient, produces larger images (e.g. 440x440) and is capable of processing a wide range of count densities. FastPET operates on noisy and blurred histo-images reconstructing clinical-quality multi-slice image volumes 800x faster than ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM). Patient data studies show a higher contrast recovery value than for OSEM with equivalent variance and a higher overall signal-to-noise ratio with both cases due to FastPET's lower noise images. This work also explored the application to low dose PET imaging and found FastPET able to produce images comparable to normal dose with only 50 reducing the anatomical region by training specific FastPET variants on brain and chest images and found narrowing the data distribution led to increased performance.


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