FedDef: Robust Federated Learning-based Network Intrusion Detection Systems Against Gradient Leakage

by   Jiahui Chen, et al.

Deep learning methods have been widely applied to anomaly-based network intrusion detection systems (NIDS) to detect malicious traffic. To expand the usage scenarios of DL-based methods, the federated learning (FL) framework allows intelligent techniques to jointly train a model by multiple individuals on the basis of respecting individual data privacy. However, it has not yet been systematically evaluated how robust FL-based NIDSs are against existing privacy attacks under existing defenses. To address this issue, in this paper we propose two privacy evaluation metrics designed for FL-based NIDSs, including leveraging two reconstruction attacks to recover the training data to obtain the privacy score for traffic features, followed by Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) based attack that generates adversarial examples with the reconstructed benign traffic to evaluate evasion rate against other NIDSs. We conduct experiments to show that existing defenses provide little protection that the corresponding adversarial traffic can even evade the SOTA NIDS Kitsune. To build a more robust FL-based NIDS, we further propose a novel optimization-based input perturbation defense strategy with theoretical guarantee that achieves both high utility by minimizing the gradient distance and strong privacy protection by maximizing the input distance. We experimentally evaluate four existing defenses on four datasets and show that our defense outperforms all the baselines with strong privacy guarantee while maintaining model accuracy loss within 3


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