Over-The-Air Adversarial Attacks on Deep Learning Wi-Fi Fingerprinting

by   Fei Xiao, et al.

Empowered by deep neural networks (DNNs), Wi-Fi fingerprinting has recently achieved astonishing localization performance to facilitate many security-critical applications in wireless networks, but it is inevitably exposed to adversarial attacks, where subtle perturbations can mislead DNNs to wrong predictions. Such vulnerability provides new security breaches to malicious devices for hampering wireless network security, such as malfunctioning geofencing or asset management. The prior adversarial attack on localization DNNs uses additive perturbations on channel state information (CSI) measurements, which is impractical in Wi-Fi transmissions. To transcend this limitation, this paper presents FooLoc, which fools Wi-Fi CSI fingerprinting DNNs over the realistic wireless channel between the attacker and the victim access point (AP). We observe that though uplink CSIs are unknown to the attacker, the accessible downlink CSIs could be their reasonable substitutes at the same spot. We thoroughly investigate the multiplicative and repetitive properties of over-the-air perturbations and devise an efficient optimization problem to generate imperceptible yet robust adversarial perturbations. We implement FooLoc using commercial Wi-Fi APs and Wireless Open-Access Research Platform (WARP) v3 boards in offline and online experiments, respectively. The experimental results show that FooLoc achieves overall attack success rates of about 70 in untargeted attacks with small perturbation-to-signal ratios of about -18dB.


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