Reveal to Revise: An Explainable AI Life Cycle for Iterative Bias Correction of Deep Models

by   Frederik Pahde, et al.

State-of-the-art machine learning models often learn spurious correlations embedded in the training data. This poses risks when deploying these models for high-stake decision-making, such as in medical applications like skin cancer detection. To tackle this problem, we propose Reveal to Revise (R2R), a framework entailing the entire eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) life cycle, enabling practitioners to iteratively identify, mitigate, and (re-)evaluate spurious model behavior with a minimal amount of human interaction. In the first step (1), R2R reveals model weaknesses by finding outliers in attributions or through inspection of latent concepts learned by the model. Secondly (2), the responsible artifacts are detected and spatially localized in the input data, which is then leveraged to (3) revise the model behavior. Concretely, we apply the methods of RRR, CDEP and ClArC for model correction, and (4) (re-)evaluate the model's performance and remaining sensitivity towards the artifact. Using two medical benchmark datasets for Melanoma detection and bone age estimation, we apply our R2R framework to VGG, ResNet and EfficientNet architectures and thereby reveal and correct real dataset-intrinsic artifacts, as well as synthetic variants in a controlled setting. Completing the XAI life cycle, we demonstrate multiple R2R iterations to mitigate different biases. Code is available on


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