Trusted AI in Multi-agent Systems: An Overview of Privacy and Security for Distributed Learning

by   Chuan Ma, et al.

Motivated by the advancing computational capacity of distributed end-user equipments (UEs), as well as the increasing concerns about sharing private data, there has been considerable recent interest in machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) that can be processed on on distributed UEs. Specifically, in this paradigm, parts of an ML process are outsourced to multiple distributed UEs, and then the processed ML information is aggregated on a certain level at a central server, which turns a centralized ML process into a distributed one, and brings about significant benefits. However, this new distributed ML paradigm raises new risks of privacy and security issues. In this paper, we provide a survey of the emerging security and privacy risks of distributed ML from a unique perspective of information exchange levels, which are defined according to the key steps of an ML process, i.e.: i) the level of preprocessed data, ii) the level of learning models, iii) the level of extracted knowledge and, iv) the level of intermediate results. We explore and analyze the potential of threats for each information exchange level based on an overview of the current state-of-the-art attack mechanisms, and then discuss the possible defense methods against such threats. Finally, we complete the survey by providing an outlook on the challenges and possible directions for future research in this critical area.


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